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LUNAR DAY OR TITHI -- AN IMPORTANT PART OF PANCHANG


अर्काद्विनिसृज: प्राचीं यद्यात्यहरह: शद्री।
तच्चान्द्रमानमंद्गौस्तु ज्ञेया द्वादद्गाभिस्तिथि: {सूर्य सिद्धांत--मानाध्याय, श्लोक-13}

A Tithi is a lunar day After the conjunction of Sun & Moon the time taken by Moon to go ahead of Sun by 12 degree is the period of 1 tithi. The average time of a tithi is 23H 37M 28S
Tithis vary in duration from approximately 19 to 26 hours, according to the movement of the Moon. Each tithi has a name, a ruling planet, and can be used in Muhurta (picking a proper time).Amavasya is when the Sun and Moon's longitude is the same again.


Formula to calculate tithi :

Longitude of Moon –Longitude of Sun
12
13 Apr 2014
Longitude of Moon 5s- 3-49
Longitude of Sun 11s 29-10
(153-49)- (359-10)
12
Adding 360 to longitude of Moon153.49+360=513.49
:. (513-49)- (359-10)
12
Quotient =12 so tithi on 13 april 2014 is 12+1 i.e. triyodashi

Tithis
Tithi   Phase difference between Sun & Moon

Tithi
Shukla Paksh
Krishna Paksh
Prathma or Pratipada
12°×1=12°
180° + 12°×1=192°
Dvitiya
12°×2=24°
180°+12°×2=204°
Tritiya
12°×3=36°
180°+12°×3=216°
Chaturthi
12°×4=48°
180°+12°×4=228°
Panchami
12°×5=60°
180°+12°×5=240°
Shashthi
12°×6=72°
180°+12°×6=252°
Saptami
12°×7=84°
180°+12°×7=264°
Ashtami
12°×8=96°
180°+12°×8=276°
Navami
12°×9=108°
180°+12°×9=288°
Dashami
12°×10=120°
180°+12°×10=300°
Ekadashi
12°×11=132°
180°+12°×11=312°
Dvadashi
12°×12=144°
180°+12°×12=324°
Trayodashi
12°×13=156°
180°+12°×13=336°
Chaturdashi
12°×14=168°
180°+12°×14=348°
Poornima or Aamavasya
12°×15=180°
180°+12°×15=360° or 0°

The lunar days (tithis) of both the bright and dark half of the month are below:
Day
Tithi
Quality
Deity
One
Pratipada
One Giving Rise
Agni
Two
Dwitiya
Auspicious
Ashwini Kumar/Brahma
Three
Tritiya
Strength & Power
Gauri - Wife of Shiva
Four
Chathurthi
Negative
Ganapati
Five
Panchami
Laxmi/Wealth
Naga
Six
Shasti
Fame
Kartika-Mars
Seven
Saptami
Friendly
Surya - Sun
Eight
Ashtami
Conflict
Shiva/Matrgana
Nine
Navami
Agressive
Durga
Ten
Dashami
Soft
Yama - the God of Death/Diks - Godesses of the Ten Directions
Eleven
Ekadashi
Happiness
Vishwedeva/Kuber/Vayu
Twelve
Dwadashi
Fame
Vishnu
Thirteen
Trayodashi
Victory
Kamdeva/Dharma
Fourteen
Chaturdashi
Agressive
Shiva/Rudra
Fifteen/Full Moon
Purnima
Soft
Soma
Thirtieth
Amavasya
Inauspicious
Pitris

The rulership of the tithis is based on the days of the week;

Planet
Tithi
Tithi
Sun
1
9
Moon
2
10
Mars
3
11
Mercury
4
12
Jupiter
5
13
Venus
6
14
Saturn
7
15
Rahu
8
0

Tithis are also broken down into five groups given below:

The Tithis are divided into five groups:

   1. Nanda (Ananda or Joyous) tithis -  Prathipada (1st), Shasti (6th) and Ekadashi
(11th) bestows happiness and joy

   2. Bhadra (Arogya or Mangala or Healthy) tithis -  Dwitiya (2nd), Saptami (7th)
and Dwadashi (12th) good for stating new work

   3. Jaya (Victory) Tithis -Tuesday Tritiya (3rd), Ashtami (8th ) and Trtayodashi
(13th) good for winning over enemies

  4. Rikkta (Loss or Nashta) Tithis - Saturday Chathurthi (4th), Navami (9th) and
Chaturdasi (14th)  not good for any important work, so it is avoided

  5. Poorna (Sampoorna - Full Moon or New Moon) Tithis -Thursday Panchami
(5th), Dashami (10th) and Amavasya (15th)(New Moon) or Poornima (15th) very
good  to complete all jobs

Nanda
Fire
1, 6, 11
Friday
Badra
Earth
2, 7, 12
Wednesday
Jaya
Akash
3, 8, 13
Tuesday
Rikta
Water
4, 9, 14
Saturnday
Purna
Vayu
5, 10, 15
Thursday
HereTrittya tithi (3rd ) is ruled by Mars but as it is Jaya (ruled by akash/Jupiter) so it will bring two people together, as akash is the binding force (that keeps the jiva in the body). Ekadasi tithi (11th ) is ruled by Mars and it is Nanda (ruled by fire-Mars) so the fighting is very strong. Mars is passionate, energetic, and creates conflict, it is not good for marriage, though it is good for war and leadership.
When certain Tithis line up with specific Varas (days) they are considered auspicious and therefore work on those days is accomplished successfully.
If Pratipat (1st ), Shashti (6th ), or Dwadashi (12th ) fall on a Friday, it is considered auspicious
Types of Tithi
There are several types of Tithi. To know the auspicious Tithi one must know about them.
A-Khand Tithi (undivided)
When one Tithi continues from sunrise to sunset, it is called "A-Khand (undivided) Tithi"
Khandit Tithi (divided)
When any Tithi ends before sunset it is called "Khandit (divided) Tithi"
Kshaya Tithi (destructive)
If there are three Tithi in one day, it is called  (Tithi is destructed) .....  Not good

Example of vridhi tithi :
9April 2014
Time of sunrise on 9 april2014: 6.08
Time of sunrise on 10 april2014: 6.06
.
Longitude of Moon
Longitude of Sun
10 april 2014 at 5.30am
3s-24-51-57
11s-25-59-30
9April 2014 at 5:30 am
3s-12-57-05
11s-25-00-14
Motion in 24 nours
0s-11-54-52
  0s-00-59-16
Motion in(6.08-5.30) 38 min
0s-00-18-56
  0s-00-01-47
10 april 2014 at 6:08
3s-25-09-53
11s-26-01-17
09 april 2014 at 6:08
3s-13-15-54
11s-25-02-26

Tithi on 9 April 2014 :( (463-16-54)- (355-02-26)
                            12
Q=9
Tithi = Q +1 = 9+1=10 (Dashmi)
So tithi in progress=Dashmi

Tithi on 10 April @sunrise :
(475-09-53)- (356-01-36)
  12
Q = 9
Shows dashmi Tithi still in progress (Tithi Vridhi)

According to Mansagri :

“A person born in Shukla Paksha is elegant like full Moon, wealthy, industrious, well read in shastras, efficient and learned”: 

On the contrary, an individual born in Krishna Paksha is “cruel, harsh in speech, hates women, dull-witted, earns livelihood with the help of others and has a big family.” It is observed that the culmination of progress in an individual’s life is directly related to the tithi on which the birth takes place in Shukla Paksha from the New Moon until the Full Moon. On the other hand, those born in Krishna paksha seem to have difficulty in adjusting themselves in their environment and subject to other indications in the horoscope, are not as successful.Krishna Paksha people born in wealthy families in many cases end up in poverty or lose their authority and power, unless there are other strong favourable Yogas to sustain them in life.



To be conti………
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